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6 Best Pre

 

For an increase on “muscle pumping” nitric oxide activity, L-citrulline works really well. By pairing the two together, the Setria® Performance Blend promotes and protects muscle performance against the deleterious side effects of high-intensity training. Kyowa Quality® L-Citrulline is a pure and cleanly sourced amino acid demonstrated to significantly improve N.O. Long believed to be the king where to get cbd gummies for dogs of nitric oxide (N.O.) boosters, L-arginine has been dethroned by L-Citrulline, an amino acid precursor to bioactive L-arginine. Because creatine builds up in muscle tissue, the typically high dosages provided by other creatine supplements are often unnecessary and may even negatively affect kidney health. As such, Creapure® offers a creatine form that’s easy to absorb and safe for daily use.

If you use “rate of perceived exertion” methods to decide your weights, you may find yourself lifting heavier after a few days of use. Other research in rats seems to indicate that significant taurine deficiency, in response to chronic, high-dose beta-alanine, reduces nitric oxide production and response. However, no long-term studies have been conducted to determine the likelihood of such problems with humans in response to typical beta-alanine dosing.

Further Reading On Beta Alanine

One of the most common pre-workout ingredients on earth, beta-alanine is a naturally occurring beta-amino acid that has strong links to improved performance, particularly when a person is exerting themselves in the range of 60 to 240 seconds. Over time, you will reap the benefits of taking pre-workouts consistently, with increased muscle, strength, and power, along with better endurance performance. CarnoSyn® beta-alanine has demonstrated significant benefits in the ability to delay muscle fatigue and increase exercise endurance and peak performance across a multitude of different training programs what are cbd gummies made with hemp oil and athletes. Another important factor is that so far, there are not any significant side effects observed in the studies regarding beta alanine supplementation. During physical activity which pushes our body past it’s ability to provide a steady supply of oxygen to the muscles, we switch to a metabolic pathway that can work despite this lack of oxygen. Unfortunately, the byproducts of using this metabolic pathway end up lowering the pH levels of our muscles, and this increased acidity not only physically hurts, but also decreases our muscles ability to contract, decreasing our performance overall.

Numerous studies have shown that supplementing withCarnoSyn Beta-Alanineimproves muscle carnosine concentrations to help delay muscle fatigue and counteract the build-up of lactic acid. A study published in the Journal of Medical & Science In Sports & Exercise examined the effects Joy Organics CBD Gummies of muscle carnosine content and endurance cycling capacity after 24 weeks of supplementation in cyclists. The study showed that supplementing withCarnoSyn Beta-Alanine increased muscle carnosine content and improved high-intensity cycling capacity at every time-interval .

An effective combination of both creatine and beta-alanine that’s available in several tasty flavors. Those who cannot consume products made near products that contain gluten, soy, and other allergens. Despite these glaring weaknesses, there is little doubt that this product uses quality ingredients that have been stress tested by third parties and is certainly quite the bang for your buck.

It contains an amine group and a carboxylic acid group, both attached to the central carbon atom which also carries a methyl group side chain. Consequently, its IUPAC systematic name is 2-aminopropanoic acid, and it is classified as a nonpolar, aliphatic α-amino acid. Under biological conditions, it exists in its zwitterionic form with its amine group protonated (as −NH3+) and its carboxyl group deprotonated (as −CO2−). It is non-essential to humans as it can be synthesised metabolically and does not need to be present in the diet.

Are Samples Of Beta Alanine Available?

In its synthesized form, creatine is a performance-enhancing substance that helps boost the production of adenosine triphosphate , which helps in muscle repair and growth under stress. One serve ofVPA beta alanineis 1.2g with each 200g tub having 166 serves. We recommend weighing each serve with microscales to obtain an accurate serving size. If you do not have microscales, one serve is around ½ of a tea spoon. Monitor your intake and cross-check nutritional labels especially if you also take pre-workouts.

We acknowledge the assistance of Musashi Australia in providing the beta-alanine supplement. Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication. If you try bicarbonate soda, make sure you have a toilet nearby and give yourself plenty of time before your race or you may miss the race stuck in the toilet. The results are inconclusive, and beta-alanine is legal to take. When it comes down to purity, safety and effectiveness, no other type of beta-alanine can level up with CarnoSyn®, patented and recognized worldwide as the benchmark for beta-alanine quality.

Table 1 briefly summarizes the findings discussed in more detail in this fact sheet on the safety and efficacy of selected ingredients in dietary supplements to enhance exercise and athletic performance. Some research-derived data is available on these ingredients on which to base a judgment about their potential value to aid exercise and athletic performance. These dietary supplement ingredients are listed and discussed in the table, and in the text that follows the table, in alphabetical order. Most studies to assess the potential value and safety of supplements to enhance exercise and athletic performance include only conditioned athletes. Therefore, it is often not clear whether the supplements discussed in this fact sheet may be of value to recreational exercisers or individuals who engage in athletic activity only occasionally.

This Position Stand is presented as a general review of literature, including a relative effects analysis to evaluate performance effects. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and -II human skeletal muscle fibres.Eur J Appl Physiol. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.Amino Acids. The dose response to beta-alanine increases exponentially over time because of the long clearance time of elevated muscle carnosine concentrations. Once you build up your carnosine concentration with beta-alanine, those elevated levels have been shown to drop by just two percent every two weeks after you cease supplementing.

However, a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials found that ingesting protein within an hour before or after exercise does not significantly increase muscle strength or size or facilitate muscle repair or remodeling . The period after exercise when protein intake reduces muscle protein breakdown, builds muscle, and increases mitochondrial proteins to enhance oxygen use by working muscles (the so-called “window of anabolic opportunity”) can last for up to 24 hours . Creatine is considered safe for short-term use by healthy adults .

Although the results are promising, the evidence to claim that beta-alanine helps increase muscle mass is based on two small clinical trials. Further research on larger populations is required to confirm these preliminary findings. However, other studies have shown that beta-alanine does not improve repetitive sprint performance in athletes who took 6g/day . Success varied due to the athletic condition of the subjects, and the type of exercise or sport tested. For instance, beta-alanine improved short-lasting and high-intensity exercise . In two meta-analyses of 18,000 people, beta-alanine improved exercise power and capacity, but not performance.

Presented evidence that just four weeks of six grams per day of beta-alanine (1.5 g, four times per day) increased the punch force of amateur boxers by an amazing 20 times, and punch frequency by four times, as compared to a placebo. However, when long rest periods (2-5 minutes) were provided between sets of a high-intensity strength training session, the effects of beta-alanine were insignificant. Beta-alanine combines with histidine, another amino acid, to form the dipeptide carnosine. Carnosine is found abundantly in the skeletal muscles and one of its main functions is buffering pH levels.

MCF-7 cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS with 0.01 mg/ml human insulin, and 1% Pen-Strep. Cells were treated with β-alanine from Sigma (St. Louis, MO) at 100 mM dissolved in media and incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24 hours. Adverse effects can also be reported to the product’s manufacturer or distributor through the address or phone number listed on the product’s label. Dietary supplement firms are required to forward reports they receive about serious adverse effects to FDA within 15 days. It is not legal to market a dietary supplement product as a treatment or cure for a specific disease, or to alleviate the symptoms of a disease.

DK works for a contract research organization that does conduct clinical trials for pharmaceutical nutrition industries. TNZ has received research support from companies to study beta-alanine and has co-formulated products containing beta-alanine. To gain a better consensus of published findings, this review includes an analysis of the relative effects of literature obtained from PubMed and Google Scholar databases. The primary search terms included beta-alanine AND supplementation AND carnosine AND exercise. The search was limited to articles published as of March 2015 and written in English.

You can get Beta Alanine from foods that contain carnosine or through supplements. Although excessive amounts may cause tingling in the skin, Beta Alanine is considered to be a safe and effective supplement to boost exercise performance. With long term supplementation of Beta Alanine studies show that you may improve your anaerobic capacity, have less muscle fatigue and increase lean muscle. The mechanism by which taurine enters the mitochondria from the cytoplasm is completely unknown. Although Suzuki et al. first identified the existence of a mitochondrial transport event, they failed to characterize it.

Supplements

Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals can also package 500 million bottles, 250 million blister packs, and 150 million pacquettes. I can’t find any whole food vegan sources of beta-alanine, which is how I’d prefer to take it in– it seems to be exclusively from flesh. They often fail to deliver as promised, although I do think they are appropriately used when you have a special need for them. Chemicals called Advanced Glycation End-Products build up in our bodies and seem to contribute to the effects of aging. It may also be the case that direct consumption of AGEs could lead to their buildup, though I’m not sure I’ve seen convincing evidence of this. Dr. Greger points out that all of the foods with the greatest number of AGEs are meat products.

There are very few pre-workout supplements with as much research supporting their use as beta-alanine. If someone’s looking for as many tools as possible to conquer a workout, or if they just want a little more endurance when they hit the gym, it’s worth considering beta-alanine. If a product claims itself as a beta-alanine product combination and the ingredients and dosages are good per serving, then we graded them on that.

Aminopropanoic Acid Beta

Anyone looking for a very simple product with simple, straightforward ingredients. No frills, no additives, this is one of the most inexpensive beta-alanine on the market. Anyone who wants just bet-alanine to mix with other ingredients. Anyone who values the lack of artificial additives in their supplements. We receive free products to review and may receive commissions on purchases made through our links.

Additionally, cells treated with β-alanine exhibited significantly reduced basal and peak OCR , which was accompanied by reduction in mitochondrial content with subsequent suppression of genes which promote mitochondrial biosynthesis. Suppression of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism by β-alanine resulted in the reduction of total metabolic rate, although cell viability was not affected. Because β-alanine treatment reduces extracellular acidity, a constituent of the invasive microenvironment that promotes progression, we investigated the effect of β-alanine on breast cell viability and migration. Β-alanine was shown to reduce both cell migration and proliferation without acting in a cytotoxic fashion.

Best Natural Pre

There were significantly greater improvements in time to exhaustion (164% vs. 123%) for the bicarbonate supplemented group compared to a group which consumed a placebo. The authors concluded that while training process itself is important in increasing muscle buffering capacity, bicarbonate supplementation may enhance training intensity and augment the gains in buffering capacity brought about by training. Bicarbonate plays an important role in maintaining pH and electrolyte gradients between intracellular and extracellular environments.

Acute intakes of more than 20 mg/kg iron from supplements or medicines can lead to gastric upset, constipation, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and fainting, especially if users do not consume food at the same time . Individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis, which predisposes them to absorb excessive amounts of dietary and supplemental iron, have an increased risk of iron overload . In a review of studies on adolescent use of performance-enhancing substances, the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that protein, creatine, and caffeine were the most commonly used ingredients and that use increased with age . Although athletes used these ingredients more than nonathletes, teenagers not involved in organized athletic activities often took them to enhance their appearance.

Olimp Beta-alanine Carno Rush Mega Tabs®helps to prolong the time before becoming tired, thus increasing the workout volume significantly. I have been taking it for about five months , and I do have to say that it works. I take it first thing in the morning with my creatine and then again pre-workout. When it comes to the whole “magic pill” aspect of workout supplements, creatine is about as close as it gets without being a load of bullshit. Creatine is a naturally occurring nitrogenous organic acid that occurs in all of us.

Axe & Sledge Beta Alanine

On non-training days, take right after getting up with plenty of water. Limits foods and beverages higher in added sugars, saturated fat, and sodium. Deer antler velvet consists of cartilage and epidermis from growing deer or elk antlers before ossification .

Alanine is an aliphatic amino acid, because the side-chain connected to the α-carbon atom is a methyl group (-CH3); alanine is the simplest α-amino acid after glycine. The methyl side-chain of alanine is non-reactive and is therefore hardly ever directly involved in protein function. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid, meaning it can be manufactured by the human body, and does not need to be obtained through the diet.

The recommended daily dose of beta-alanine for endurance athletes is between 2-5 grams. You can spread this into multiple doses throughout the day, or take all at once if desired. Large doses of beta-alanine may cause a side effect of “tingling in the extremities” . Carnosine may also elevate nitric oxide production, which improves oxygen and nutrient delivery to cells throughout the entire body. This, in turn, helps to preserve the body’s youthfulness and delay the onset of aging. Regardless of those factors, though, beta-alanine may just be one way to increase your TTE through increasing carnosine stores and decreasing the negative impact of lactic acid on your muscles.

There are few things in the fitness world that incite more arguments and controversy than carbohydrates. There are varying approaches, but if you want to get the most from your workouts and train at your peak, quality fuel is critical. At this point, you should know that nutrition has a significant impact on your results. Abs are built in the kitchen, you are what you eat, and all the rest.

The causative role of toxic proteins in the aging process is strengthened by studies linking reduced aging rates with reduced protein synthesis. A reduction in protein synthesis means a reduction in metabolic byproducts such as protein carbonyls. Also, studies on Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes suggest that, since fewer new proteins are being made, fewer will be misfolded. This will free up chaperone proteins to sequester and help to clear out already existing proteins that may have been damaged through oxidation or glycation. A later study analyzing carnosine kinetics also noted that both supplemental and dietary carnosine failed to elicit a detectable serum spike, although anserine and urinary carnosine increased. I don’t get a “buzz” from Beta-Alanine like everyone else on the Internet seems to, but I do notice a difference in my overall feeling of strength when I mix it in with some creatine and taurine 20min or so before a workout.

Beta-alanine, a type of amino acid that the body does not incorporate into proteins, is the rate-limiting precursor to the synthesis of carnosine—a dipeptide of histidine and beta-alanine—in skeletal muscle. More carnosine in muscle leads to greater potential attenuation of exercise- induced reductions in pH, which could enhance performance of intense activities of short to moderate duration, such as rowing and swimming . A survey of 1,248 students aged 16 years or older in five U.S. colleges and universities in 2009–2010 found that 66% reported use of any dietary supplement. The reasons for use included enhanced muscle strength (20% of users), performance enhancement (19% of users), and increased endurance (7% of users) . Products taken for these purposes included protein, amino acids, herbal supplements, caffeine, creatine, and combination products. This fact sheet provides an overview of selected ingredients in dietary supplements designed or claimed to enhance exercise and athletic performance.

Examine.com does not assume liability for any actions undertaken after visiting these pages, and does not assume liability if one misuses supplements. Examine.com and its Editors do not ensure that unforeseen side effects will not occur even at the proper dosages, and thereby does not assume liability for any side effects from supplements or practices hosted under the domain of Examine.com. Some studies suggest a fat loss effect, possibly secondary to an increase in workout volume. Somewhat effective at reducing fatigue and, secondary to that, at improving time to exhaustion. A mildly positive effect, possibly secondary to an increase in muscular endurance and to a reduction in fatigue, rather than being due to any cardiopulmonary interaction. We cover bottlenecks, supplements that actually work, a surprising way you could be limiting your muscle gains, and what you need to do to maximize muscle building.

Influence of oral beta-alanine and histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius.Equine Vet J Suppl. None of the human studies indexed on Examine.com (with beta-alanine doses ranging from 2.6 to 6.4 g/day) suggests a resulting taurine deficiency, but this parameter has not been assesed directly. Interestingly, since Creatine supplementation can also increase muscle carnosine (though to a lesser extent than beta-alanine), it may indirectly increase lifespan.

Ingested carnosine is hydrolyzed into its two substrates, beta-alanine and histidine, via two different carnosinase enzymes, CN1 and CN2. The highest carnosine levels are seen in horses, racing dogs, and the Balaenoptera acutorostrata whale. Farm-raised animals, being less active, would have lower levels of carnosine than wild animals. Our 100% Beta-Alanine Amino Acid is unflavoured so can be easily added to whichever flavoured pre-workout drink or shake you enjoy.

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Beta-alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise.Eur J Appl Physiol. Effect of histidine-free and -excess diets on anserine and carnosine contents in rat gastrocnemius muscle.J Nutr Sci Vitaminol . Biosynthesis of carnosine and related peptides by skeletal muscle cells in primary culture.Eur J Biochem.

This product also contains a few unique ingredients, including black pepper extract, which may have anti-inflammatory properties . Just keep in mind that while this product is completely stimulant-free, beta-alanine can cause a harmless tingling sensation. Based on reviews, customers appreciate the company’s testing process and use of high quality ingredients. All of Ora Organic’s products are third-party tested by various organizations, including Eurofins and JK BioScience Analytical Laboratories, and have a Certificate of Analysis available for customers to view testing results.

Unless you are vegetarian, you derive these from the animal proteins in your diet. Specifically, pork and beef are good sources of carnosine, whereas tuna and venison are high food sources of anserine. Beta-alanine can offer real performance benefits, but it has unique chemical properties that need to be understood.

Determinants Of Skeletal Muscle Carnosine

Further subanalysis was performed on studies that investigated the effect of co-supplementation of β-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on exercise (co-supplementation). In theory, increasing skeletal muscle carnosine levels (via beta-alanine supplementation or intense training) should increase buffering capacity, delay fatigue, and increase exercise performance. Β-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid) is a non-essential amino acid found as a principal component of several commercially available sports supplements that purportedly increase athletic performance .

Many people report being able to perform one or two additional reps in the gym when training in sets of 8–15 repetitions. Beta-alanine supplementation can also improve moderate- to high-intensity cardiovascular exercise performance, like rowing or sprinting. Whether you want an increase in energy and endurance, fighting fatigue and weight loss, or building strength and lean muscle, the C4 pre-workout family has a solution to support any or all of your goals. The most bang for your buck activities to supplement with beta-alanine in terms of performances will be seen in those activities lasting in around the 1 min to 5 min range. Since beta-alanine supplements increase carnosine levels, they help your muscles reduce their acid levels during exercise.

In other words, pre-workouts combine specific ingredients in specific doses to give you the biggest bang for your buck by maximizing the time and effort you put into your workouts. Iconic and essential, C4 Original is our foundational explosive pre-workout. Available in an amazing array of flavors, C4 Original is built with explosive energy, endurance, pumps, and a performance formula that delivers 150mg of caffeine for consumers of all levels. Moderately trained athletes were able to cycle longer compared to a placebo after taking 150mg of tyrosine per kg of body weight. Tyrosine plays a role in providing a better mood, which may result in getting more out of your workouts.

Get a monthly report summarizing studies in the health categories that matter specifically to you. This product should not be used as a substitute for a varied, balanced diet. Chris Lockwood holds a Ph.D. in exercise physiology, and has over 100 peer-review publications and presentations to his credit. Beta-alanine is an ingredient with benefits that start to show after you’ve reached a saturation point so it’s best to take it consistently.

Some research suggests that taking both beta-alanine and creatine may be more effective at improving performance and muscle growth than taking either of the supplements on their own. Creaforce makes this simple with a good dose of both ingredients, and it’s available in an unflavored version or in watermelon, blue raspberry, and sour apple flavors. Yes, however, you want to make sure you do not exceed your nitrate threshold or double up on stimulatory products such as pre-workout and weight loss products.

Given the proton-buffering capacity of muscle carnosine , beta-alanine is most commonly purported to improve performance in exercise of high enough intensity to induce intramuscular acidosis. Creatine supplementation has been consistently shown to improve high-intensity exercise performance, primarily by increasing phosphorylcreatine and adenosine triphosphate availability . The first study investigating co-ingestion of Does delta 8 make you high? these ingredients was reported in a published abstract by Harris et al. , finding that power output in a 4-min cycling test was improved more by creatine + beta-alanine than creatine alone. Similarly, Hoffman et al. showed greater improvements in lean mass, fat mass, and strength in creatine + beta-alanine compared to creatine alone. Notably, these studies did not include a treatment arm ingesting beta-alanine alone.

Many people crave the tingles that beta-alanine provides in a pre-workout supplement. For those folks, this pre-workout is dosed with plenty of beta-alanine in addition to other useful ingredients to ensure your workout is optimal. Citrulline Malate – improves blood vessel vasodilation reduces fatigue during your workout and helps optimize output from the mitochondria – the energy powerhouses of your body.

How Vpa’s Beta Alanine Optimises You

Results from the meta-analysis showed a small significant mean effect size of 0.180 (95% CI 0.078 to 0.284). Substantial heterogeneity was noted with systematic variance accounting for ∼72% of the total variance . Taking HMB when injured may therefore help reduce the impact of downtime, and then speed how quickly you return to full training.

Gulewich proved, in 1953, that carnosine significantly increases chemical buffering in skeletal muscles, the ones you use in exercise. Buffering is a process whereby the acid-alkali balance of the muscles is maintained, despite the fact that lactic acid production during exercise is trying to make the muscles more acidic. Depicts the determinants of skeletal muscle carnosine and its effects on exercise performance. Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., … & Stout, J. R. Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Optimizing human in vivo dosing and delivery of β-alanine supplements for muscle carnosine synthesis.

Our chiral products are reputable domestically, and have been internationally marketed to Japan, South Korea, Middle East and Europe. VIP Supplier is a premium membership for suppliers on ECHEMI.COM. Members are provided with comprehensive ways to promote their products. BS, BG and CS contributed to the conception and design of the study. BS, KES and GGA contributed to the development of the search strategy analysis and to the acquisition of data.

It could be hypothesized that greater increases in circulating BA may be due to lower transamination and, thus, may result in larger increases in muscle carnosine content. Supporting this, the carnosine and anserine concentration of murine skeletal and heart muscle appears dependent upon the circulating availability of BA . In humans, Stautemas et al. showed a large inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic plasma BA profile following an acute absolute 1,400 mg dose of BA. Importantly, the high variability in plasma BA was not reduced after a dose relative to body mass. It is known that the time course plasma profile following an acute dose of BA appears stable throughout a period of chronic supplementation . But there are a few supplements that can fast-track your plan to become stronger and faster.

Beta-alanine (β-Alanine) is an amino acid naturally found in muscles and the brain. Together with histidine, it forms carnosine, which helps reduce acid build-up during exercise. Despite mixed evidence of success, it is sold as a performance-enhancing supplement under names like Carnosyn and its slow release version, SR CarnoSyn . This is a naturally occurring beta-amino acid and a building block of carnosine, which seems to help buffer acid in muscles. What that means is that it may neutralize the acid in the body; during intense exercise, processes that help to rapidly provide energy can also cause pH to drop, acidity to increase, and muscles to fatigue. Beta-Alanineis a non-essential beta-amino acid, which works to fight muscle fatigue by counteracting the development of lactic acid.

Uptake and receptor sites for glycine in isolated bovine adrenal medulla chromaffin cells.Neuroscience. L-carnosine and verapamil inhibit hypoxia-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha) in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.Pharmacol Res. Protective effect of carnosine during nitrosative stress in astroglial cell cultures.Neurochem Res. Retardation of the senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts by carnosine.Exp Cell Res. The bioactive dipeptide anserine is transported by human proton-coupled peptide transporters.FEBS J.

Some researchers have suggested that supplements containing antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and coenzyme Q10 , could reduce this free-radical formation, thereby minimizing skeletal muscle damage and fatigue and promoting recovery . Sellers claim that dozens of ingredients in dietary supplements can enhance exercise and athletic performance. Well-trained elite and recreational athletes might use products containing one or more of these ingredients to train harder, improve performance, and achieve a competitive edge. The rise in carnosine from beta alanine is not acute; it’s cumulative, so intermittent use of these supplements before exercise is likely useless.

Established in 1987, Musashi offers a full spectrum of sport nutrition solutions sourced from the highest quality ingredients. Driven by an obsession to innovate with scientifically supported and proven products, Musashi prides itself on strict quality control principles, assisting the performance needs of elite to everyday athletes. When your body produces ATP using the glycolytic and phosphagen systems, the result is metabolic byproducts like excess hydrogen ions. When these hydrogen ions are not cleared fast enough, they bind with pyruvate to produce lactic acid, and elevated levels have been shown to hinder performance, coordination, and skill. This is most likely due to the anti-catabolic and anabolic signaling effects of the branched-chain amino acids present in whey protein—particularly leucine.